Dr. Ebraheim’s educational animated video describes the anatomy of the brachial plexus.
The brachial plexus has 5 roots,
C5, C6 join together and form the upper trunk,C7 makes the middle trunk, C8, T1 join together and form the lower trunk.
Each trunk splits into 2 divisions: anterior and posterior division.
The 3 posterior divisions unit to form the Posterior cord.
The upper 2 anterior division join together and form the Lateral cord.
The anterior division of the lower trunk forms the Medial cord.
They are named for their position in relation to the Axillary artery.
From the roots:
- From C5: the dorsal scapular nerve that supply the: Levator scapula muscle, Rhomboids major muscle, Rhomboids minor muscle.
- From C5 C6 C7 comes the long thorasic nerve which supply the Serratus anterior muscle, injury to this nerve will affect the serratus anterior and cause medial winging of the scapula, if you see medial winging scapula in a case of brachial plexus injury you need to determine if injury to the nerve is preganglionic or postganglionic. Look for additional conditions such as: Horner’s syndrome ( ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis, enophthalmosis), these symptoms signal a preganglionic lesion.
- Only the upper trunk gives branches to: the suprascapular nerve, which supply the supraspinatus muscle and the infraspinatus muscle.
And the also give us the nerve to subclavius: which supply th subclavius muscle.
- The divisions don’t give branches.
- The Lateral cord gives:
1- The Lateral pectoral.
2- The Musculocutaneous.
3- The Lateral branch of median nerve.
- The Posterior cord gives:
1- The Upper subscapular.
2- The Thoracodorsal.
3- The Lower subscapular.
4- The Axillary nerve.
5- The Radial nerve.
- The Medial cord gives:
1- The Medial pectoral.
2- The Medial cutaneous nerve of the arm
3- THE Medial antibrachial nerve.
4- The Ulnar nerve.
5- The Media branch of the median nerve.
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