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A 6-year-old girl with severe scoliosis has been treated with halo traction for 2 weeks, after which she presented with the physical exam findings found in Figures A and B. Which of the following statements are true regarding this complication?
Surgical intervention is usually required.
It is caused by direct trauma to the supraorbital nerve.
It is caused by direct trauma to the supratrochlear nerve.
It is related to injury to cranial nerve VI.
It is related to injury to cranial nerve VII.
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Figure A is an illustration of a skull with three colored zones. Placing a pin for a halo vest orthosis in the red zone places what structures at risk?
Supratrochlear nerve and optic nerve
Supraorbital nerve and optic nerve
Supratrochlear nerve and cranial nerve VI
Supraorbital nerve and cranial nerve VI
Supraorbital nerve and supratrochlear nerve
A 27-year-old male is an unrestrained passenger in a motor vehicle accident. He was medically stabilized in the emergency room. His initial injury CT scans are seen in Figures A and B. He is neurologically intact and placed in a halo fixator prior to surgical treatment. What is the most common neurologic complication with halo traction?
Weakness in biting and chewing strength
Deficit in medial and downward eye movement
Deficit in lateral eye movement
Inability to close eyes against resistance
Tongue deviation toward the affected side
With halo immobilization the anterior pin should be placed in which of the following regions in Figure A to avoid injury to the supraorbital nerve and optimize stability?
The halo vest is most effective at controlling which of the following spinal motions?
Rotation at the atlantoaxial joint
Flexion and extension in the subaxial cervical spine
Rotation in the subaxial cervical spine
Lateral bend in the subaxial cervical spine
Flexion and extension at the cervicothoracic junction
A 20-year-old man presents with a type III odontoid fracture and undergoes halo application. What nerve structure is in danger if the anterior pins are placed too medially?