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Which of the following has most effectively reduced radiation exposure in pediatric trauma patients?
Increased use of fluoroscopy in injury evaluation
Implementing clinical practice guidelines resulting in less CT for cervical spine clearance
Routine use of CT with low-dose radiation protocols
Avoiding radiographs to vital organ regions whenever possible
MRI for all patient cervical spine clearance
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A 36-year-old female is involved in a motor vehicle accident in which she is rear-ended in slow moving traffic at less than 5MPH. She presents to the ER complaining of localized neck pain and stiffness. On physical exam she has paraspinal tenderness in the cervical region. She has limited motion in all planes secondary to pain. Her motor, sensory, and reflex exam are normal in her upper and lower extremities. Radiographs are obtained and shown in Figure A, B, C, and D. A photo of the damage on her car was brought to the ER by EMT and is shown in Figure D. Which of the following is most appropriate in the treatment of this patient's injury?
Soft cervical orthosis with early physical therapy
Philadelphia collar with restricted motion
C2 pars screw osteosynthesis
C2 anterior screw osteosynthesis