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Updated: 6/18/2021

Hypercalcemia

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  • causes of hypercalcemia 
    • Causes of hypercalcemia include
      • malignancy
      • hypercalcemia in malignancy caused by parathyroid-related hormone protein (PTHrP)
      • characterized by:
        • hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low PTH
        • examples of malignancies:
          • Paget's Disease
          • Multiple Myeloma
          • Squamous cell cancer of the lung
            • ectopic production of PTH
          • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (type I and II)
          • Pituitary adenoma
      • medical conditions
        • primary hyperparathyroidism
        • sarcoidosis
        • Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
        • hyperthyroidism
        • Addison's disease
        • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
      • drugs
        • thiazide diuretics
      • dietary
        • calcium ingestion (milk-alkali syndrome)
        • hypervitaminosis D
        • hypervitaminosis A
  • Presentation
    • Symptoms
      • CNS
        • confusion
        • stupor
        • weakness
      • gastrointestinal
        • constipation
        • anorexia
        • nausea
        • vomiting
      • kidney
        • polyuria
        • kidney stones
        • polydipsia
  • Treatment
    • Hydration
      • saline diuresis
    • Drug therapies
      • loop diuretics
      • bisphosphonates
      • mithramycin
      • calcitonin
      • galium nitrate
    • Dialysis (severe)
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